The International Centre for Defence Studies (ICDS) is an independent think tank, devoted to the analysis of security and defence policy questions. ICDS was founded in March 2006.
The Centre’s roles are to analyse global developments in the security and defence field, and to examine narrower topics that are of special interest to Estonia. Our independent expertise should both help the state’s institutions develop more effective policies, and raise the general public’s awareness of issues that influence Estonia’s security and defence.
ICDS also aims to promote and strengthen foreign policy discussion in Estonia by organising seminars in which Estonian and international foreign policy experts can meet to debate the hot topics of the day. The Centre also organises the annual Lennart Meri Conference (http://lmc.icds.ee ), which focuses on European security.
The Centre issues a foreign policy monthly “Diplomaatia” (www.diplomaatia.ee) and foreign and security policy articles written by the Centre’s researchers are published regularly in the Estonian media.
Hannes Hanso - Researcher
Hannes Hanso is responsible for the analysis of the dynamics of Central Asian and Chinese developments that have significant foreign policy, security policy and economic implications for Estonia. His work is aimed at making practical suggestions about Estonia’s policy making and policy coordination in the region and about cooperation with EU and NATO partners.
In the 1990s, he spent two years studying Chinese at Sichuan and Heilongjiang Universities in China. He received both his BA in Politics and Development and his MSc in Asian Politics (with a focus on China’s foreign and security policy and Central Asia) from the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London.
Before joining ICDS, Hannes has worked at the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Finance of Estonia. In addition, he has been a member of the EU diplomatic service in Beijing, covering the People’s Republic of China and Mongolia.
Martin Hurt - Director
Martin Hurt is responsible for analysing the organisation of national defence of Estonia and its neighbouring countries (including the possibilities of engaging the civil sector) and for assessing the development of the defence forces of the three Baltic states over the last two decades.
Martin has previously worked on various posts at the Ministry of Defence of Estonia (1998-2000, 2002-2010), the General Staff of the Estonian Defence Forces (2000-2002) and the Headquarters of the Swedish Armed Forces (1995-1998). His responsibilities have included national defence planning, budgeting, real estate management and defence procurement. Martin is a graduate of the Economics Department of Stockholm University (1996). He has studied Estonian Philology and History at the University of Tartu.
Tomas Jermalavicius - Researcher
Tomas Jermalavicius focuses on the issues pertaining to the utility and uses of military power, strategic foresight, defence research and technology (R&T) as well as defence policies of the Baltic states.
Prior to joining ICDS, Tomas worked at the Baltic Defence College (BALTDEFCOL), first as deputy director of the College’s Institute of Defence Studies in 2001-2004, and later as dean of the college in 2005-2008. He was also involved in the post-graduate military diplomacy programme at the Lithuanian Military Academy. In 1998-2001 and in 2005, Tomas worked at the Defence Policy and Planning Department of the Lithuanian Ministry of National Defence. From 1998 -1999, he was a research fellow at the Swedish National Defence Establishment (FOA, now FOI).
Tomas holds a BA in political science from the University of Vilnius, an MA in war studies from King’s College London and an MBA degree from the University of Liverpool.
Kaarel Kaas - Junior Researcher
Kaarel Kaas works as a junior researcher for the Defence and Force Planning Project of the ICDS. In addition, he monitors the developments connected with Russia’s military capabilities and military reform. In 2007–2010, he co-edited the foreign policy monthly published by the ICDS, Diplomaatia.
From 1998-2003, Kaarel worked as a reporter at Estonia’s leading daily newspaper, Postimees, covering mainly politics and defence and security related issues. From 2003-2006 he was Postimees’s foreign news editor, in which position he also filed reports from various global hot spots.
Riina Kaljurand - Deputy Director
Riina Kaljurand is the Deputy Director of the International Centre for Defence Studies and co-ordinates a co-operative project with the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
Riina holds an MA in Political Science from the University of Stockholm and has also studied social anthropology at Stockholm University and the Queen’s University of Belfast.
Riina worked at the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1993-1997, including tours in the Embassies in Oslo and Stockholm. In 2002, she was briefly employed as a research assistant by the University of Stockholm. From 2003-2004 she worked in Kyiv within the framework of the „Public Administration Reform” project run by SIDA (Swedish International Development Agency).
From 2004-2007 she worked at the Estonian Ministry of Defence, including two and a half years as an Assistant to the Permanent Undersecretary.
Tony Lawrence - Senior Researcher
Tony Lawrence is a senior responsible for the Defence and Force Planning Project. He is also a member of the Directing Staff of the Higher Command Studies Course at the Baltic Defence College in Tartu, Estonia.
After completing a degree in Aerospace Engineering at the University of Bristol, Tony began his career with the UK Ministry of Defence in 1988. His first professional appointment was at the Defence Research Agency, where he developed computer code to predict submarine manoeuvring performance. After this, he spent a year at University College London, completing a Masters Degree in Defence Systems Engineering.
Tony has worked in the UK`s MoD`s Directorate of International Operations. as a UK defence adviser in the Estonian Ministry of Defence and served eighteen months in the Balkans Directorate (MoD, UK), including a six month operational tour as Political Adviser to the SFOR Commander Multinational Division (SW) in Banja Luka, Bosnia. Tony then worked for three years in the NATO and European Policy Group, heading a small team responsible for developing and implementing the UK MoD’s approach to the European Security and Defence Policy. In December 2001, he began a three year appointment as the officer responsible for ballistic missile defence issues within the Nuclear and Strategic Defence department of the British Defence Staff, in Washington DC. Before joining ICDS, in September 2006, Tony worked as an adviser in the procurement department of the Estonian Ministry of Defence.
Kadri Liik - Senior Researcher
Kadri Liik became the Director of the ICDS upon its founding in spring 2006. Prior to that Kadri worked as the editor-in-chief of the monthly magazine Diplomaatia (Diplomacy - now a publication of the ICDS) and also hosted the current affairs talk show Välismääraja at radio Kuku.
From 2002-2004, Kadri worked as the foreign news editor of Estonia’s largest daily paper, Postimees, having returned home in the summer of 2002 from Moscow where, since 1998, she had served as Postimees’ Moscow correspondent.
Before that, from 1996-1997, she was the Moscow correspondent of the daily Eesti Päevaleht and the information agency Baltic News Service. She started her career at the Estonian daily Hommikuleht, where she served as the culture editor from 1993-1995.
Kadri has a Master’s degree in Diplomacy from Lancaster University in the UK, where she studied as a Chevening scholar from 1997-1998. Her BA comes from Tartu University in Estonia, from where she graduated in journalism in 1993.
Erik Männik - Senior Researcher
The tasks of Erik Männik at the ICDS comprise the analysis of Estonia’s ongoing and potential international military operations as well as the assessment of their development trends and factors influencing them.
Previously Erik has worked in the Estonian Ministry of Defence. In 2005 he received his doctorate in International Relations from Manchester Metropolitan University in the UK. In 2005−2010 he held the Chair of Strategy at the Estonian National Defence College. Since 2007 he has been an adjunct professor at the Baltic Defence College.
His publications have addressed contemporary security problems and military conflicts, terrorism, European Security and Defence Policy as well as the security and defence of small states. He has supervised master theses on modern conflicts and lessons learned from them, the privatisation of military affairs and strategic surprise in warfare.
Iivi Masso - Editor-in-Chief of Diplomaatia
Iivi Anna Masso is Editor-in-Chief of the monthly magazine Diplomaatia (Diplomacy – a publication of the ICDS) since the end of 2010. Before that, she worked as a freelance writer and independent policy analyst, sharing time between Finland and Estonia.
In 2002–2008, Iivi worked as a researcher and a lecturer at the Departments of Political Science and Practical Philosophy of the University of Helsinki, specialising in contemporary political philosophy, democratic theories and human rights. Before that, she spent 2000–2001 in New York as a visiting scholar at the New School for Social Research .
Iivi got her PhD in Political Sciences from the University of Helsinki in 2006 (Democratic Legitimacy and the Politics of Rights, Helsinki University Press). She has published a number of academic articles in Finnish and Estonian journals and books. She has an MPhil in Political Science from the CEU (1999) and an MA in Philosophy from the University of Helsinki (1997).
Julian Tupay - Junior Researcher
Julian Tupay joined the ICDS team as a research assistant in 2008. He is working with other ICDS researchers on Russia and energy policy, Baltic Sea security and NATO’s new strategic developments.
Julian holds a B.A. in Political Sciences from Roger Williams University, RI, USA; and an M.A. in International Relations and Diplomacy from Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.