Webinar: Confidence-building measures and new missile technologies

HCoC members states met for the 20th Annual Regular Meeting in Vienna on 7-8 July 2021. The FRS organised a virtual-side event on 6 July 2021, dedicated to participants to the meeting but also open to any states, experts, researchers or representatives from the industry.

The Hague Code of Conduct (HCoC) is a unique set of confidence-building measures dealing with ballistic missiles, whose main benefit is to create transparency on launches and tests and therefore to limit the risk of misinterpretation regarding these activities. Given the ongoing modernisation of systems and the evolution of technologies, there is a need to strengthen the existing framework. This discussion aimed at assessing the role played by the Code today, its adaptation to the rise of new missile technologies and the possibilities of negotiating new confidence-building measures based on the experience of the Code.


  • Amb. Marjolijn VAN DEELEN, Special Envoy for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, European External Action Service (EEAS), European Union
  • Amb. Benno LAGGNER, Resident Representative to the IAEA, Permanent Representative to the CTBTO PrepCom, Permanent Mission of Switzerland, Vienna, Chair of the HCoC 2020-2021

Main session: Confidence-building measures and new missile technologies


  • Emmanuelle MAITRE, Research Fellow, FRS


  • Dmitry STEFANOVICH, Research Fellow, IMEMO
  • Timothy WRIGHT, Research Analyst, IISS


  • Amb. Gustavo AINCHIL, Ambassador to Austria and Permanent Representative of Argentina to the International Organizations in Vienna