King’s College London – Centre for Science and Security Studies

CSSS (United Kingdom)

The Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS) is a multi-disciplinary research and teaching group that brings together scientific experts with specialists in politics, international relations and history. CSSS forms part of the School of Security Studies at King’s and draws on experts from the Department of War Studies and the Department of Defence Studies. Members of the Centre conduct scholarly and policy-relevant research on weapons proliferation, non-proliferation, verification and disarmament, nuclear security, space security and mass effect terrorism including the CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear) dimension. CSSS also hosts Project Alpha, which takes an academically rigorous but policy-oriented approach to studying the problem of nuclear proliferation, using a wide range of open source tools and techniques. In addition to academic staff, CSSS host masters and postgraduate research students, as well as visiting fellows and associates drawn from the academic, government and business sectors. Three Masters Programmes are run within CSSS, an MA in Science and Security (launched 2005), an MA in Non-Proliferation and International Security. (launched 2012) and an MA in Arms Control and International Security (launched 2016). A significant emphasis is also placed on engagement with industry, government and international organisations, and the wider dissemination of research findings through interaction with the media.

Contact information

Centre for Science and Security Studies

Department of War Studies
King’s College London

The team

Name, Surname, contact Resume Speciality/Research Focus

Wyn Bowen

Head of School of Security Studies

+44 (0)20 7848 2942

Wyn Bowen is Head of School for the School of Security Studies at King’s College London, comprising the Defence Studies Department (DSD) and the Department of War Studies.

From April 2014 to August 2016, he was Head of Department/Dean of Academic Studies of the Defence Studies Department, based at the Joint Services Command and Staff College (JSCSC) at the Defence Academy of the UK. Prior to April 2014, he was Professor of Non-Proliferation and International Security in the Department of War Studies and Director of CSSS since September 2007.

Prior to joining King’s, he was a Senior Research Associate in the Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, California (1995-1997). In 1994 he spent five months as a Center Associate of the Matthew B. Ridgway Center for International Studies, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh.

·        Nuclear, WMD and missile proliferation, non-proliferation and counter-proliferation

·        Nuclear terrorism and nuclear security

·        Deterrence and coercion

Kieran Bird

Business and Finance Manager

Kieran joined the Project Alpha team in July 2018 as Business & Finance Manager. He previously worked in office, procurement, financial & grants management in the higher education sector at Imperial College London. He has spent the past 16 years at Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, an international non-profit organisation focusing on the elimination of neglected tropical diseases, predominantly in sub Saharan Africa. He is experienced in setting up new offices, recruiting and setting up systems, and policies and procedures.

Kieran is familiar with working in complex donor environments. This includes managing budgets, and reporting and compliance requirements for a variety of international donors such as the BMGF, USAID & DFID UK.

After studying at Middlesex and Imperial College London, Kieran spent 3 years in TEFL in Southeast Asia.

Jonathan Brewer

Visiting Professor


Dr Jonathan Brewer lives in New York. He is a Visiting Professor at the Department of War Studies, an Adjunct Senior Fellow at the Center for New American Security, Washington DC, and an Associate Fellow at the Royal United Service’s Institute, London.

He is currently a member of the UN 1540 Panel of Experts. From 2010 to 2015 he worked as financial expert on the UN Panel on Iran created pursuant to resolution 1929 (2010). From 1983-2010, he was a member of HM Diplomatic Service and served in British Embassies in Luanda, Mexico City and Moscow. He was Head of Counter-Proliferation (2005-2010).

·        Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

·        Iran

·        Typologies of financing of proliferation,

·        Implementation and circumvention of UN, US and EU financial sanctions

·        Private sector compliance good practices

·        Financial Action Task Force Recommendations

James Cameron

Postdoctoral Research Associate


James Cameron is a postdoctoral research associate in the Centre for Science and Security Studies and the Centre for Grand Strategy. His research sheds new light on the nuclear history of the Cold War and explores its implications for current policy. He is the author of The Double Game: The Demise of America’s First Missile Defense System and the Rise of Strategic Arms Limitation (Oxford University Press, 2017).

James has previously held fellowships at Stanford and Yale, and has taught at Fundação Getulio Vargas in São Paulo, Brazil. He holds a BA and PhD from the University of Cambridge and an MPhil in Russian and East European Studies from the University of Oxford.

Erica Deffebach

Research Assistant

Ms Erica Deffebach is a Research Assistant at Project Alpha with a focus on proliferation risks of new science and technology (S&T) developments. She has recently completed a Masters in International Conflict Studies at Kings College London. Ms Deffebach holds a BSc in Physics from the University of St Andrews with a speciality in Quantum Computing and Cryptography.

Other research interests include the nexus between armed conflict and proliferation networks, and arms control. She speaks English and Japanese.

·        Proliferation networks-armed conflict nexus

·        Arms control

Hassan Elbahtimy


+44 (0) 207 848 7347


Hassan Elbahtimy was awarded a PhD from the War Studies Department in 2013 for a thesis that addressed the historical origins of Egypt’s nuclear policy 1955-1968. Since then, Hassan been an active member of Nuclear Proliferation International History Project (NPIHP). In 2014, he joined CSSS as a postdoctoral researcher and was part of a team that ran a collaborative research and training project with Atomic Weapons Establishment, UK (AWE) and Norwegian Institute of Energy Technology.

Before joining CSSS, Hassan worked as a senior researcher at VERTIC where his research focused on nuclear verification particularly IAEA safeguards and nuclear disarmament. While at VERTIC, Hassan participated in the UK Norway Initiative on Verifying Warhead Dismantlement as an observer in 2008-2009.

In 2006, he was awarded the United Nations Disarmament Fellowship and was a Chevening scholar in 2007.

Hassan’s current research interests lie at the intersection between science, security and history. This include current and historical cases of nuclear restraint and reversal and more generally how non-nuclear weapon states develop and implement policies in the nuclear field. Hassan is also interested in researching the politics and the verification of nuclear disarmament and the politics of WMD in the Middle East.

·        Security in Middle East

·        Nuclear politics in the Middle East

·        Verification of disarmament and arms control treaties

·        Initiatives on global nuclear disarmament

·        Regional Nuclear Weapons Free Zones (NWFZs)

·        Non-proliferation treaty regimes

Christopher Hobbs

Reader in Science & Security and Co-Director of CSSS

+44 (0)20 7848 1433

Christopher Hobbs is Reader in Science and Security in the Department of War Studies and Co-Director of the Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS). He holds a Ph.D in physics from the University of London and a MPhys from Oxford University. Before taking up a lectureship at King’s he worked as a Research Fellow funded the Leverhulme (2010-2012) and MacArthur (2012-2014) Foundations.

Chris’s work on non-proliferation issues has been largely focused on understanding Iran’s nuclear behaviour and the regional reaction to its programme, which he explores in a co-authored book. In terms of preventing nuclear terrorism he has sought to explore key issue areas including regime cohesionsensitive nuclear information and risk assessment. His other publications and research interests include OSINT, nuclear detection in the maritime environment, insider threats and security culture. He haa also sought to engage industry, regulatory bodies and governments in nuclear security in order to strengthening both policy and practice.

His research and practitioner engagement has been funded by the Leverhulme Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the Partnership for Nuclear Security, the European Defence Agency and the UK’s Department of Business Energy and Industrial Strategy.

In 2014-2015 he served as Chair of the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN). He has a visiting position at the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa and is an Associate Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.

·        Nuclear Security

·        Non-Proliferation

·        Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)

·        Nuclear Security Education and Training

Zenobia Homan

Project Coordinator and Research Associate

+44 (0)207 848 4615

Zenobia joined the Centre for Science & Security Studies in January 2018. She contributes to coordinating the Centre’s international professional development courses on nuclear and radiological security, and she is currently working on research relating to security culture, preventative measures against insider threats, and CBRN terrorism. Zenobia is a member of the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) as well as Women in International Security (WIIS) UK.

Zenobia holds a BA Joint Honours degree from Durham University, MPhil from the University of Cambridge, PhD from SOAS London, and she has been a visiting researcher at the University of Würzburg. Her doctoral thesis addressed Near and Middle Eastern history, focussing on methods of communication, diplomacy and social networks in Eastern Turkey, Northern Iraq and Northern Syria – or Kurdistan. Prior to joining CSSS, Zenobia worked at various think tanks and research institutes, conducting policy research on topics such as cultural change, radicalisation, terrorism, and international security – as well as governance, media, and access to information.

·        Insider threats

·        CBRN terrorism

Hannah Kershaw

Centre for Science and Security Studies Coordinator

+44 (0)207 848 2892

Before joining the centre, Hannah studied for her MA in Postcolonial Literature and Culture and her PhD in Politics and Literature at the University of York. Hannah is responsible for the administration of CSSS and supports the smooth running of the Centre’s operations, finances, recruitment, and communications.

Hannah also assists with the coordination of the Centre’s many research and consultancy grants, and manages the Centre’s prestigious MacArthur Foundation Grant in nuclear security. In addition, she co-ordinates all logistical aspects of the programme of professional development courses around the globe, including maintaining an effective working relationship with the Centre’s many global stakeholders.

Benjamin Kienzle

Senior Lecturer

+44 (0)1793 788199

Dr Kienzle is a Senior Lecturer in Defence Studies and an Associate Researcher at the Centre for Science & Security Studies (CSSS) at King’s College London. He is also a member of the Observatory of European Foreign Policy, an international research group based in Barcelona. His current research focuses on multilateral security cooperation, in particular in Europe. Dr Kienzle has published articles in this area in a number of international peer-reviewed journals such as International Affairs, Cooperation and Conflict, Mediterranean Politics and the Journal of World Trade. He is also a contributor to a number of handbooks and edited volumes in both English and Spanish about European security policies.

Previously, he was the Marie Curie Fellow at CSSS, where he implemented his EU-NONPROLIF project, a two-year, research-only fellowship project funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission. Before joining King’s College, Dr Kienzle was a postdoctoral researcher at the Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals, where he coordinated the DYNAMUS project financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation.

Dr Kienzle holds a PhD in International Relations and European Integration from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (2010) and an MA with distinction in Peace and Conflict Studies from the University of Ulster (2003).

·        Multilateral security cooperation

·        European security

·        International non-proliferation institutions

·        European Union non-proliferation policies

·        Relations between Europe & Iran and between Europe & India

Filippa Lentzos

Senior Research Fellow


Dr Filippa Lentzos is a Senior Research Fellow, with a joint appointment in the Department of Global Health & Social Medicine and the Department of War Studies.

Her research explores biological threats and the security and governance of emerging technologies in the life sciences. Much of her work is focused on synthetic biology, often identified as the area of the life sciences most susceptible to misuse, but she also examines other emerging fields like genome editing, potentially pandemic pathogens and neurobiology. Her efforts to minimise biological threats involve regular engagement with scientists, governments and the United Nations. She is a member of the BioS research group.

Dr Lentzos’ Biological Threats in the 21st Century was published by Imperial College Press in 2016, and became available in paperback in 2017.

Dr Lentzos originally trained in human sciences before switching to social science, and spent the first ten years of her career at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), before joining King’s in 2012. Her work has been funded by established UK academic funding sources (ESRC, EPSRC, the Wellcome Trust) and by non-academic funding sources including the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Norway, Switzerland and Germany.

·        Security risks, governance & regulation of the biological sciences

·        Biological weapons, bioterrorism & deliberate outbreaks of disease

·        Biological disarmament & non-proliferation

·        Biodefence

·        Compliance assessment, transparency & trust

·        Synthetic biology and gene editing technologies

·        Responsible science & accountability

·        Global health security & public health emergencies of international concern.

Dr Nicola Leveringhaus

Lecturer in War Studies

+44 (0)20 7848 7586

In September 2016 Dr Leveringhaus joined the Department as a Lecturer in War Studies. She specialises in the International Relations of Asia, with a focus on China and the security of that region as it relates to nuclear weapons. She is affiliated to the Asian Security & Warfare Research Group and the Centre for Science and Security Studies and the Centre for Grand Strategy in the Department of War Studies. She holds degrees from the University of Aberystwyth (BScEcon (Hons) International Politics and Strategic Studies), the London School of Economics and Political Science (MSc International Relations), and the University of Oxford (MPhil Modern Chinese Studies and DPhil International Relations, both St. Antony’s College).

Immediately prior to her appointment at King’s, from 2015-16, she was a Lecturer in International Politics in the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield. Before Sheffield, Dr Leveringhaus spent several years at the University of Oxford, where she completed her doctoral thesis under the supervision of Professor Rosemary Foot, and conducted early career research.

She has held visiting positions abroad, at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China (mentored by Professor Li Bin, from 2010-11) and a pre-doctoral fellowship at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies in Monterey, California (Winter 2011, mentored by Professor Jing Dong Yuan). Before her studies at Oxford, she was a research fellow at King’s College London, conducting research for Professor Wyn Bowen on nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. During this time she also published peer-reviewed articles on Jihadist terrorism in Spain in collaboration with Professor Javier Jordan of the University of Granada in Spain.

·        International Relations of Asia

·        Chinese foreign and security policy (past and present)

·        Asian security, especially as it relates to nuclear weapons

·        Global ordering and rising/resurgent powers

Daniel Liu



Mr Daniel Liu has been a Sanctions and Illicit Trade Associate with Project Alpha since Sept 2017. Mr Liu was a senior policy officer and an analyst in the public sector, where he supported strategic policy formulation, humanitarian operations planning, international engagement and military exercises.

A biochemist by trade, Mr Liu holds a BS/BA with Honours from the University of Sydney, and has recently completed a Masters of Arts in Conflict, Security and Development at King’s College London. He has also completed Peace and Humanitarian Operations training through the Australian Defence Force Warfighting Centre.

·        Sanctions

·        Illicit trade

·        China

Dr Susan Martin

Senior Lecturer

+44 (0)20 7848 1644

Dr Martin is a senior lecturer in the Department and co-Deputy Director of the Centre for Science and Security Studies. Her research focuses on the continuing relevance of structural realism, and in particular the ability of structural realism to contribute to an explanation of the role of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons in international politics. Currently she is conducting a comparative analysis of the use and non-use of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons in the Vietnam War. Other projects include an analysis of chemical weapons use in Syria as well a gender analysis of nuclear weapons and deterrence.

She received her BA in Political Science from Yale University and her MA and PhD in Political Science from the University of California, Berkeley. She was a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Christopher H. Browne Center for the Study of International Politics at the University of Pennsylvania, and have taught at Wesleyan University, the University of Pennsylvania and Florida Atlantic University.

·        Structural realism and international relations theory more broadly

·        Chemical, biological and nuclear weapons in international politics—including causes of proliferation and use as well as strategies to deter proliferation and use

·        Deterrence and Security Studies more broadly, including gender and nuclear deterrence

Dr Jack McDonald

Lecturer in War Studies


Dr McDonald is a Lecturer in War Studies at the Department of War Studies, King’s College London. He is also part of the Centre for Science and Security Studies, and previously convened the Centre’s MA in Science and Security. He holds a PhD in War Studies from King’s College London, as well as an MA in International Peace & Security. Prior to taking up a lectureship at King’s he worked as a contractor for the United Nations Mine Action Service, and prior to that as a Teaching & Research Fellow in the Department, and as a Research Associate on an ESRC grant examining novel technology, law, and warfare.

Dr McDonald’s research examines the relationship between the law and ethics of war, and novel technology. He takes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of war and warfare, but he is primarily interested in the philosophical questions underlying the regulation of warfare both in the present and the past. His current research examines the development of technology, military practice, and ethics, as a historically-grounded perspective on the current debate over the legality and ethics of autonomous weapon systems. This is part of a wider research project on power and political violence in digital societies, and the role of tradition in Anglo-American warfare.

He has worked with a wide range of organisations, delivering teaching on public policy and national security to police, civil servants, and armed forces worldwide. He has also worked with civil society groups such as Airwars as well as the All Party Parliamentary Group on Drones to engage the UK government on issues associated with military drones and extraterritorial lethal strikes. He is currently working with Chatham House to produce a report on European approaches to the use of armed drones.

·        War and Philosophy

·        The law and ethics of war

·        Anglo-American warfare

·        Remote war and remote warfare

·        Data ethics and open source intelligence (OSINT)

·        Humanitarian response in contemporary conflicts

·        The regulation of weapons, especially explosive weapons and improvised explosive devices (IEDs)


Dr Matthew Moran

Reader in International Security and Co-Director of CSSS

+44 (0)207 848 1552

Dr Moran is a Reader in International Security and Co-Director of the Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS) in the Department of War Studies. He studied for a BA (Hons) and MA at the National University of Ireland, Galway and holds a PhD from University College London.

His research interests span a range of security-related issues, including: proliferation behaviour, nuclear security education, open source intelligence, disarmament verification and sanctions. His most recent project is a study of deterrence and coercive diplomacy with regard to chemical weapons use in Syria.

·        WMD proliferation and non-proliferation

·        Proliferation Behaviour

·        Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)

·        Nuclear Security Education

·        Sanctions

Hannah Mulvey

Centre for Science and Security Studies Coordinator

+44 (0)207 848 1944

Hannah joined King’s College London in September 2017 as an Administrator in the Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS). Hannah coordinates the communications and logistics of international workshops held in London and abroad, with the aim of building an international nuclear and radiological security culture. She regularly communicates with external partners to ensure these events run smoothly.

Before joining the centre, Hannah worked in the hospitality industry in the United States with a focus on events management. Prior to that, she was an administrator to the Design, Architect and Built Environment Faculty at the University of Technology, Sydney.

Hannah Mulvey holds a BA in History from Central Connecticut State University.

Stephen Osborne

Senior Research Associate

Steve Osborne is a Senior Research Associate for Project Alpha. He has worked on proliferation networks and sanctions, and the implications of Brexit for export control. He has also played a leading role in international capacity-building programmes. He has many years’ experience in UK government in the area of proliferation and export control.

·        Sanctions

·        Non-Proliferation

·        Export control


Daniel Salisbury

Research Fellow



Daniel Salisbury is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS) within the Department of War Studies. Daniel joined CSSS in July 2018 from the Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs where he was a Stanton Nuclear Security Postdoctoral Fellow. Previously he was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, a Research Associate at CSSS, and a Research Assistant at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS).

At CSSS he works on a series of projects on nuclear security and non-proliferation. Daniel was awarded his PhD from KCL in 2017 for a thesis entitled “From Silence to “Showmanship”: The British government’s presentation of nuclear policy, 1974-1983”. He holds a MA in Science and Security and a BA in War Studies also from King’s.  Daniel is also a non-resident Associate with the Managing the Atom Project at the Belfer Center, and on the editorial board of the Strategic Trade Review journal. He was a 2017 CSIS PONI Nuclear Scholar and is now a member of the CSIS PONI Mid-Career Cadre. He became an Associate of King’s College London (AKC) in 2010.

·        Nuclear security

·        Non-proliferation, illicit trade, export controls and sanctions

·        British nuclear history

Dr Sarah Tzinieris

Research Fellow

+44 (0)207 848 7996

Dr Sarah Tzinieris is a Research Fellow in the Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS) at the War Studies Department. Dr Tzinieris’ current research focuses on nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear security, CBRN terrorism and international relations. She also helps manage the Nuclear Security Culture Programme, funded by the UK government’s Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). Dr Tzinieris has recently co-edited a briefing book on the NPT Treaty which was provided to state parties at the NPT conferences. Her other publications have focused on non-proliferation, insider threats, the EU accession process, UK foreign policy, and mining and oil gas projects. She previously worked at the BBC as a strategist and for the European Commission Delegation at the UN as a Security Council Adviser. She is a member of the UK Project on Nuclear Issues. Dr Tzinieris holds a PhD and MPhil in International Relations from Cambridge University.

Heather Williams

Lecturer in Defence Studies and

CSSS Fellow, MacArthur Foundation Grant

+44 (0)207 848 7413

Heather Williams

Lecturer in Defence Studies and

CSSS Fellow, MacArthur Foundation Grant

+44 (0)207 848 7413


Dr Williams is a Lecturer in the Defence Studies Department at King’s College London and a CSSS Fellow, funded by the MacArthur Foundation grant. Previously she was a MacArthur Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of War Studies at King’s College London, where she also finished her PhD in 2014. Prior to joining King’s as a postdoc she was a Research Fellow at Chatham House on nuclear weapons policy and worked at the Institute for Defense Analyses in Washington, DC, where she is now an adjunct Research Staff Member.

Her current research focuses on US-Russia arms control and the impact of geostrategic shifts, domestic politics, and changes in leadership. Other policy-relevant issues she is exploring include tailoring assurance to NATO members, the status of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) amid increasing pressure for nuclear disarmament, and competing concepts of strategic stability.

Given her policy background, she remains active in the nuclear weapons policy community, regularly engage with government, and is particularly interested in outreach and working with other mid- and early-career experts, along with the next generation interested in working on nuclear issues. Her MA is in Security Policy Studies from The George Washington University, and BA is in International Relations and Russian Studies from Boston University.