Virtual seminar dedicated to Latin American countries

On 27 April 2021, the FRS organised a virtual seminar in Spanish and Portuguese dedicated to Latin American countries. Around 95 experts and diplomats participated to this event, representing a dozen of countries.


09:00 – 09:15 (GMT-5) – Presentation and welcoming remark

  • Alexandre HOUDAYER, Secretary General, FRS
  • Mélanie RÉGIMBAL, Director, United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America (UNLIREC)
  • Marjolijn VAN DEELEN, ‎Special Envoy for Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, European External Action Service, European Union

09:15 – 10:30 (GMT-5) – The Hague Code of Conduct (HCoC): principles, functioning, challenges and benefits

MODERATOR: Emmanuelle MAITRE, Research Fellow, FRS


  • Benno LAGGNER, Resident Representative to the IAEA, Permanent Representative to the CTBTO PrepCom, Permanent Mission of Switzerland, Vienna, Austria, HCoC Chair 2020-2021
  • George-Wilhelm GALLHOFER, Minister, Representative of the HCoC Immediate Central Contact (ICC), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Austria
  • Alexandre HOUDAYER, Secretary General, FRS


  • Contribution of the Code to international security
  • Being a Subscribing State: commitments and benefits
  • Day-to-day implementation of the Code
  • What opportunities for Latin American countries in joining the Code? What constraints?

10:30 – 11:30 (GMT-5) – Latin American perspectives in implementing disarmament and non-proliferation instruments

MODERATOR: Alexandre HOUDAYER, Secretary General, FRS


  • Jorge LÓPEZ, Project Advisor, UNLIREC
  • Soledad URRUELA ARENALES, UNSCR 1540 Coordinator, Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE), Organization of American States
  • Natalia ZHURINA and Alain PONCE BLANCAS, Research Officers, OPANAL


  • Contribution of regional organizations in implementing WMD disarmament and nonproliferation instruments.
  • Tools and assistance provided by regional organizations.
  • Challenges and opportunities in regional implementation.

11:30 -11:45 (GMT-5) – Break

11:45 – 12:45 (GMT-5) – Ballistic missile proliferation and dual-use items: challenges and opportunities linked to the dissemination of launching technologies

MODERATOR: Jorge LÓPEZ, Project Advisor, UNLIREC


  • Emmanuelle MAITRE, Research Fellow, FRS
  • Paul WOHRER, Research Fellow, FRS


  • Main trends and challenges posed by ballistic proliferation today
  • Assessment of tools and instruments existing to fight the proliferation of ballistic missiles, including the HCoC
  • Role of the Code in promoting transparency in space
  • From small sat to small launcher: recent trends in space development and consequence on the diffusion of dual-use technology

12:45 (GMT-5) – Conclusion