The HCoC and African States

HCoC Issue Brief – December 2020

By Emmanuelle Maitre and Lauriane Héau, FRS

While both ballistic programmes and the risk posed by these systems remain very limited on the African continent, ballistic missiles inherently constitute a global risk – due to their range and destructive potential. Instruments such as the HCoC, which seek to limit the proliferation of such systems, are therefore relevant for African countries.


41 African states have subscribed to the HCoC as of November 2020, and 4 out of the 5 most recent HCoC subscribing states are African: Lesotho (2017), Togo (2019), Equatorial Guinea (2020) and Somalia (2020).


The HCoC could hold several benefits for African states, including opportunities for space development: as space capabilities are increasing on the continent, the HCoC could provide a useful and relevant framework.

Download the paper in PDF: English / French